《Web安全之机器学习入门》笔记:第十七章 17.4 CNN识别垃圾邮件

本文阅读 2 分钟

本小节通过实例讲述CNN识别垃圾邮件的方法。

img1、数据集

将load_one_file函数中open的参数增加encoding='utf-8',如下所示:

def load_one_file(filename):
    x=""
    with open(filename, encoding='utf-8') as f:
        print(filename)
        for line in f:
            line=line.strip('\n')
            line = line.strip('\r')
            x+=line
    return x

def load_files_from_dir(rootdir):
    x=[]
    list = os.listdir(rootdir)
    for i in range(0, len(list)):
        path = os.path.join(rootdir, list[i])
        if os.path.isfile(path):
            v=load_one_file(path)
            x.append(v)
    return x

def load_all_files():
    ham=[]
    spam=[]
    for i in range(1,5):
        path="../data/enron%d/ham/" % i
        print("Load %s" % path)
        ham+=load_files_from_dir(path)
        path="../data/enron%d/spam/" % i
        print("Load %s" % path)
        spam+=load_files_from_dir(path)
    return ham,spam

会报错 

../data/enron1/spam/0754.2004-04-01.GP.spam.txt
    for line in f:
  File "C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3\lib\codecs.py", line 322, in decode
    (result, consumed) = self._buffer_decode(data, self.errors, final)
UnicodeDecodeError: 'utf-8' codec can't decode byte 0xb7 in position 1400: invalid start byte

Process finished with exit code 1

 可以通过将文件改为utf-8编码解决

img

img

 另外,在实验过程中,发现作者提供的《web安全之机器学习入门》并没有这个data/mail//data/enron%d相关数据集,我这里只是选取了data目录下enron1的数据,并以此做实验。

img

不过我发现在《web安全之深度学习实战》中data目录下有mail这个数据集,可以用这个来做实验。

img

3、词袋特征化

def get_features_by_wordbag():
    ham, spam=load_all_files()
    x=ham+spam
    y=[0]*len(ham)+[1]*len(spam)
    vectorizer = CountVectorizer(
                                 decode_error='ignore',
                                 strip_accents='ascii',
                                 max_features=max_features,
                                 stop_words='english',
                                 max_df=1.0,
                                 min_df=1 )
    print(vectorizer)
    x=vectorizer.fit_transform(x)
    x=x.toarray()
    return x,y

x,y=get_features_by_wordbag()
x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(x, y, test_size = 0.4, random_state = 0)

4、TF特征化

def  get_features_by_tf():
    global  max_document_length
    x=[]
    y=[]
    ham, spam=load_all_files()
    x=ham+spam
    y=[0]*len(ham)+[1]*len(spam)
    vp=tflearn.data_utils.VocabularyProcessor(max_document_length=max_document_length,
                                              min_frequency=0,
                                              vocabulary=None,
                                              tokenizer_fn=None)
    x=vp.fit_transform(x, unused_y=None)
    x=np.array(list(x))
    return x,y

print("get_features_by_tf")
x,y=get_features_by_tf()
x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(x, y, test_size = 0.4, random_state = 0)

5、TF-IDF特征化

def get_features_by_wordbag_tfidf():
    ham, spam=load_all_files()
    x=ham+spam
    y=[0]*len(ham)+[1]*len(spam)
    vectorizer = CountVectorizer(binary=True,
                                 decode_error='ignore',
                                 strip_accents='ascii',
                                 max_features=max_features,
                                 stop_words='english',
                                 max_df=1.0,
                                 min_df=1 )
    print(vectorizer)
    x=vectorizer.fit_transform(x)
    x=x.toarray()
    transformer = TfidfTransformer(smooth_idf=False)
    print(transformer)
    tfidf = transformer.fit_transform(x)
    x = tfidf.toarray()
    return  x,y

print("get_features_by_tfidf")
x,y=get_features_by_wordbag_tfidf()
x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(x, y, test_size = 0.4, random_state = 0)

6、构建朴素贝叶斯NB模型

def do_nb_wordbag(x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test):
    print("NB and wordbag")
    gnb = GaussianNB()
    gnb.fit(x_train,y_train)
    y_pred=gnb.predict(x_test)
    print(metrics.accuracy_score(y_test, y_pred))
    print(metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_pred))

7.构建SVM模型

def do_svm_wordbag(x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test):
    print("SVM and wordbag")
    clf = svm.SVC()
    clf.fit(x_train, y_train)
    y_pred = clf.predict(x_test)
    print(metrics.accuracy_score(y_test, y_pred))
    print(metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_pred))

8、构建DNN

def do_dnn_wordbag(x_train, x_test, y_train, y_testY):
    print("DNN and wordbag")

    # Building deep neural network
    clf = MLPClassifier(solver='lbfgs',
                        alpha=1e-5,
                        hidden_layer_sizes = (5, 2),
                        random_state = 1)
    print(clf)
    clf.fit(x_train, y_train)
    y_pred = clf.predict(x_test)
    print(metrics.accuracy_score(y_test, y_pred))
    print(metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_pred))

9、构建RNN

def do_rnn_wordbag(trainX, testX, trainY, testY):
    global max_document_length
    print("RNN and wordbag")

    trainX = pad_sequences(trainX, maxlen=max_document_length, value=0.)
    testX = pad_sequences(testX, maxlen=max_document_length, value=0.)
    # Converting labels to binary vectors
    trainY = to_categorical(trainY, nb_classes=2)
    testY = to_categorical(testY, nb_classes=2)

    # Network building
    net = tflearn.input_data([None, max_document_length])
    net = tflearn.embedding(net, input_dim=10240000, output_dim=128)
    net = tflearn.lstm(net, 128, dropout=0.8)
    net = tflearn.fully_connected(net, 2, activation='softmax')
    net = tflearn.regression(net, optimizer='adam', learning_rate=0.001,
                             loss='categorical_crossentropy')

    # Training
    model = tflearn.DNN(net, tensorboard_verbose=0)
    model.fit(trainX, trainY, validation_set=(testX, testY), show_metric=True,
              batch_size=10,run_id="spm-run",n_epoch=5)

10、构建CNN 

def do_cnn_wordbag(trainX, testX, trainY, testY):
    global max_document_length
    print("CNN and tf")

    trainX = pad_sequences(trainX, maxlen=max_document_length, value=0.)
    testX = pad_sequences(testX, maxlen=max_document_length, value=0.)
    # Converting labels to binary vectors
    trainY = to_categorical(trainY, nb_classes=2)
    testY = to_categorical(testY, nb_classes=2)

    # Building convolutional network
    network = input_data(shape=[None,max_document_length], name='input')
    network = tflearn.embedding(network, input_dim=1000000, output_dim=128)
    branch1 = conv_1d(network, 128, 3, padding='valid', activation='relu', regularizer="L2")
    branch2 = conv_1d(network, 128, 4, padding='valid', activation='relu', regularizer="L2")
    branch3 = conv_1d(network, 128, 5, padding='valid', activation='relu', regularizer="L2")
    network = merge([branch1, branch2, branch3], mode='concat', axis=1)
    network = tf.expand_dims(network, 2)
    network = global_max_pool(network)
    network = dropout(network, 0.8)
    network = fully_connected(network, 2, activation='softmax')
    network = regression(network, optimizer='adam', learning_rate=0.001,
                         loss='categorical_crossentropy', name='target')
    # Training
    model = tflearn.DNN(network, tensorboard_verbose=0)
    model.fit(trainX, trainY,
              n_epoch=5, shuffle=True, validation_set=(testX, testY),
              show_metric=True, batch_size=100,run_id="spam")

11、完整代码

基于python3运行环境的完整代码

from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import CountVectorizer
import os
from sklearn.naive_bayes import GaussianNB
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn import metrics
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from sklearn import svm
from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfTransformer
import tensorflow as tf
import tflearn
from tflearn.layers.core import input_data, dropout, fully_connected
from tflearn.layers.conv import conv_1d, global_max_pool
from tflearn.layers.conv import conv_2d, max_pool_2d
from tflearn.layers.merge_ops import merge
from tflearn.layers.estimator import regression
from tflearn.data_utils import to_categorical, pad_sequences
from sklearn.neural_network import MLPClassifier
from tflearn.layers.normalization import local_response_normalization
from tensorflow.contrib import learn


max_features=500
max_document_length=1024



def load_one_file(filename):
    x=""
    with open(filename, encoding='utf-8') as f:
        #print(filename)
        for line in f:
            line=line.strip('\n')
            line = line.strip('\r')
            x+=line
    return x

def load_files_from_dir(rootdir):
    x=[]
    list = os.listdir(rootdir)
    for i in range(0, len(list)):
        path = os.path.join(rootdir, list[i])
        if os.path.isfile(path):
            v=load_one_file(path)
            x.append(v)
    return x

def load_all_files():
    ham=[]
    spam=[]
    for i in range(1,2):
        path="../data/enron%d/ham/" % i
        print("Load %s" % path)
        ham+=load_files_from_dir(path)
        path="../data/enron%d/spam/" % i
        print("Load %s" % path)
        spam+=load_files_from_dir(path)
    return ham,spam

def get_features_by_wordbag():
    ham, spam=load_all_files()
    x=ham+spam
    y=[0]*len(ham)+[1]*len(spam)
    vectorizer = CountVectorizer(
                                 decode_error='ignore',
                                 strip_accents='ascii',
                                 max_features=max_features,
                                 stop_words='english',
                                 max_df=1.0,
                                 min_df=1 )
    print(vectorizer)
    x=vectorizer.fit_transform(x)
    x=x.toarray()
    return x,y

def show_diffrent_max_features():
    global max_features
    a=[]
    b=[]
    for i in range(1000,20000,2000):
        max_features=i
        print("max_features=%d" % i)
        x, y = get_features_by_wordbag()
        x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(x, y, test_size=0.4, random_state=0)
        gnb = GaussianNB()
        gnb.fit(x_train, y_train)
        y_pred = gnb.predict(x_test)
        score=metrics.accuracy_score(y_test, y_pred)
        a.append(max_features)
        b.append(score)
        plt.plot(a, b, 'r')
    plt.xlabel("max_features")
    plt.ylabel("metrics.accuracy_score")
    plt.title("metrics.accuracy_score VS max_features")
    plt.legend()
    plt.show()

def do_nb_wordbag(x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test):
    print("NB and wordbag")
    gnb = GaussianNB()
    gnb.fit(x_train,y_train)
    y_pred=gnb.predict(x_test)
    print(metrics.accuracy_score(y_test, y_pred))
    print(metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_pred))

def do_svm_wordbag(x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test):
    print("SVM and wordbag")
    clf = svm.SVC()
    clf.fit(x_train, y_train)
    y_pred = clf.predict(x_test)
    print(metrics.accuracy_score(y_test, y_pred))
    print(metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_pred))

def get_features_by_wordbag_tfidf():
    ham, spam=load_all_files()
    x=ham+spam
    y=[0]*len(ham)+[1]*len(spam)
    vectorizer = CountVectorizer(binary=True,
                                 decode_error='ignore',
                                 strip_accents='ascii',
                                 max_features=max_features,
                                 stop_words='english',
                                 max_df=1.0,
                                 min_df=1 )
    print(vectorizer)
    x=vectorizer.fit_transform(x)
    x=x.toarray()
    transformer = TfidfTransformer(smooth_idf=False)
    print(transformer)
    tfidf = transformer.fit_transform(x)
    x = tfidf.toarray()
    return  x,y


def do_cnn_wordbag(trainX, testX, trainY, testY):
    global max_document_length
    print("CNN and tf")

    trainX = pad_sequences(trainX, maxlen=max_document_length, value=0.)
    testX = pad_sequences(testX, maxlen=max_document_length, value=0.)
    # Converting labels to binary vectors
    trainY = to_categorical(trainY, nb_classes=2)
    testY = to_categorical(testY, nb_classes=2)

    # Building convolutional network
    network = input_data(shape=[None,max_document_length], name='input')
    network = tflearn.embedding(network, input_dim=1000000, output_dim=128)
    branch1 = conv_1d(network, 128, 3, padding='valid', activation='relu', regularizer="L2")
    branch2 = conv_1d(network, 128, 4, padding='valid', activation='relu', regularizer="L2")
    branch3 = conv_1d(network, 128, 5, padding='valid', activation='relu', regularizer="L2")
    network = merge([branch1, branch2, branch3], mode='concat', axis=1)
    network = tf.expand_dims(network, 2)
    network = global_max_pool(network)
    network = dropout(network, 0.8)
    network = fully_connected(network, 2, activation='softmax')
    network = regression(network, optimizer='adam', learning_rate=0.001,
                         loss='categorical_crossentropy', name='target')
    # Training
    model = tflearn.DNN(network, tensorboard_verbose=0)
    model.fit(trainX, trainY,
              n_epoch=5, shuffle=True, validation_set=(testX, testY),
              show_metric=True, batch_size=100,run_id="spam")

def do_rnn_wordbag(trainX, testX, trainY, testY):
    global max_document_length
    print("RNN and wordbag")

    trainX = pad_sequences(trainX, maxlen=max_document_length, value=0.)
    testX = pad_sequences(testX, maxlen=max_document_length, value=0.)
    # Converting labels to binary vectors
    trainY = to_categorical(trainY, nb_classes=2)
    testY = to_categorical(testY, nb_classes=2)

    # Network building
    net = tflearn.input_data([None, max_document_length])
    net = tflearn.embedding(net, input_dim=10240000, output_dim=128)
    net = tflearn.lstm(net, 128, dropout=0.8)
    net = tflearn.fully_connected(net, 2, activation='softmax')
    net = tflearn.regression(net, optimizer='adam', learning_rate=0.001,
                             loss='categorical_crossentropy')

    # Training
    model = tflearn.DNN(net, tensorboard_verbose=0)
    model.fit(trainX, trainY, validation_set=(testX, testY), show_metric=True,
              batch_size=10,run_id="spm-run",n_epoch=5)


def do_dnn_wordbag(x_train, x_test, y_train, y_testY):
    print("DNN and wordbag")

    # Building deep neural network
    clf = MLPClassifier(solver='lbfgs',
                        alpha=1e-5,
                        hidden_layer_sizes = (5, 2),
                        random_state = 1)
    print(clf)
    clf.fit(x_train, y_train)
    y_pred = clf.predict(x_test)
    print(metrics.accuracy_score(y_test, y_pred))
    print(metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_pred))



def  get_features_by_tf():
    global  max_document_length
    x=[]
    y=[]
    ham, spam=load_all_files()
    x=ham+spam
    y=[0]*len(ham)+[1]*len(spam)
    vp=tflearn.data_utils.VocabularyProcessor(max_document_length=max_document_length,
                                              min_frequency=0,
                                              vocabulary=None,
                                              tokenizer_fn=None)
    x=vp.fit_transform(x, unused_y=None)
    x=np.array(list(x))
    return x,y

if __name__ == "__main__":
    print("Hello spam-mail")
    #print "get_features_by_wordbag"
    #x,y=get_features_by_wordbag()
    #x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(x, y, test_size = 0.4, random_state = 0)

    #print "get_features_by_wordbag_tfidf"
    #x,y=get_features_by_wordbag_tfidf()
    #x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(x, y, test_size = 0.4, random_state = 0)
    #NB
    #do_nb_wordbag(x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test)
    #show_diffrent_max_features()

    #SVM
    #do_svm_wordbag(x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test)

    #DNN
    #do_dnn_wordbag(x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test)

    print("get_features_by_tf")
    x,y=get_features_by_tf()
    x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(x, y, test_size = 0.4, random_state = 0)

    #CNN
    do_cnn_wordbag(x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test)


    #RNN
    #do_rnn_wordbag(x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test)

12、运行结果

| Adam | epoch: 005 | loss: 0.09914 - acc: 0.9897 -- iter: 3000/3103
Training Step: 159  | total loss: 0.09456 | time: 70.005s
| Adam | epoch: 005 | loss: 0.09456 - acc: 0.9907 -- iter: 3100/3103
Training Step: 160  | total loss: 0.09103 | time: 79.386s
| Adam | epoch: 005 | loss: 0.09103 - acc: 0.9907 | val_loss: 0.12595 - val_acc: 0.9657 -- iter: 3103/3103
--

Process finished with exit code 0

其实大家可以对比每种算法的效果,自己也可以多写几个算法调试。

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