暴力破解

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暴力破解:攻击者可以利用字典不断进行枚举,破解用户的账号名和密码。 常用的暴力破解工具:burpsuite、hydra等。

以DVWA的brute force为例 1、Low**

代码如下:

<?php

if( isset( $_GET[ 'Login' ] ) ) { 
    // Get username
    $user = $_GET[ 'username' ];

    // Get password
    $pass = $_GET[ 'password' ];
    $pass = md5( $pass );

    // Check the database
    $query  = "SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE user = '$user' AND password = '$pass';";
    $result = mysqli_query($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"],  $query ) or die( '<pre>' . ((is_object($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"])) ? mysqli_error($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]) : (($___mysqli_res = mysqli_connect_error()) ? $___mysqli_res : false)) . '</pre>' );

    if( $result && mysqli_num_rows( $result ) == 1 ) { 
        // Get users details
        $row    = mysqli_fetch_assoc( $result );
        $avatar = $row["avatar"];

        // Login successful
        echo "<p>Welcome to the password protected area { $user}</p>";
        echo "<img src=\"{ $avatar}\" />";
    }
    else { 
        // Login failed
        echo "<pre><br />Username and/or password incorrect.</pre>";
    }

    ((is_null($___mysqli_res = mysqli_close($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]))) ? false : $___mysqli_res);
}

?>

查看源码,只是验证了参数Login是否被设置,并没有任何的防爆破机制,而且username和password以get方式传递,然后传入数据库中进行比较,没有做任何过滤,存在sql注入,并且可以直接进行爆破。 万能密码:

admin'or '1'='1
admin' -- -
admin' #

2、Medium

<?php

if( isset( $_GET[ 'Login' ] ) ) { 
    // Sanitise username input
    $user = $_GET[ 'username' ];
    $user = ((isset($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]) && is_object($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"])) ? mysqli_real_escape_string($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"],  $user ) : ((trigger_error("[MySQLConverterToo] Fix the mysql_escape_string() call! This code does not work.", E_USER_ERROR)) ? "" : ""));

    // Sanitise password input
    $pass = $_GET[ 'password' ];
    $pass = ((isset($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]) && is_object($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"])) ? mysqli_real_escape_string($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"],  $pass ) : ((trigger_error("[MySQLConverterToo] Fix the mysql_escape_string() call! This code does not work.", E_USER_ERROR)) ? "" : ""));
    $pass = md5( $pass );

    // Check the database
    $query  = "SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE user = '$user' AND password = '$pass';";
    $result = mysqli_query($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"],  $query ) or die( '<pre>' . ((is_object($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"])) ? mysqli_error($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]) : (($___mysqli_res = mysqli_connect_error()) ? $___mysqli_res : false)) . '</pre>' );

    if( $result && mysqli_num_rows( $result ) == 1 ) { 
        // Get users details
        $row    = mysqli_fetch_assoc( $result );
        $avatar = $row["avatar"];

        // Login successful
        echo "<p>Welcome to the password protected area { $user}</p>";
        echo "<img src=\"{ $avatar}\" />";
    }
    else { 
        // Login failed
        sleep( 2 );
        echo "<pre><br />Username and/or password incorrect.</pre>";
    }

    ((is_null($___mysqli_res = mysqli_close($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]))) ? false : $___mysqli_res);
}

?>

mysqli_real_escape_string():函数转义在 SQL 语句中使用的字符串中的特殊字符。Medium级别的代码使用了这个函数去防止sql注入时候SQL语句中的特殊字符,但是依然没有对暴力破解进行限制。

3、High

<?php

if( isset( $_GET[ 'Login' ] ) ) { 
    // Check Anti-CSRF token
    checkToken( $_REQUEST[ 'user_token' ], $_SESSION[ 'session_token' ], 'index.php' );

    // Sanitise username input
    $user = $_GET[ 'username' ];
    $user = stripslashes( $user );
    $user = ((isset($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]) && is_object($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"])) ? mysqli_real_escape_string($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"],  $user ) : ((trigger_error("[MySQLConverterToo] Fix the mysql_escape_string() call! This code does not work.", E_USER_ERROR)) ? "" : ""));

    // Sanitise password input
    $pass = $_GET[ 'password' ];
    $pass = stripslashes( $pass );
    $pass = ((isset($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]) && is_object($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"])) ? mysqli_real_escape_string($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"],  $pass ) : ((trigger_error("[MySQLConverterToo] Fix the mysql_escape_string() call! This code does not work.", E_USER_ERROR)) ? "" : ""));
    $pass = md5( $pass );

    // Check database
    $query  = "SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE user = '$user' AND password = '$pass';";
    $result = mysqli_query($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"],  $query ) or die( '<pre>' . ((is_object($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"])) ? mysqli_error($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]) : (($___mysqli_res = mysqli_connect_error()) ? $___mysqli_res : false)) . '</pre>' );

    if( $result && mysqli_num_rows( $result ) == 1 ) { 
        // Get users details
        $row    = mysqli_fetch_assoc( $result );
        $avatar = $row["avatar"];

        // Login successful
        echo "<p>Welcome to the password protected area { $user}</p>";
        echo "<img src=\"{ $avatar}\" />";
    }
    else { 
        // Login failed
        sleep( rand( 0, 3 ) );
        echo "<pre><br />Username and/or password incorrect.</pre>";
    }

    ((is_null($___mysqli_res = mysqli_close($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]))) ? false : $___mysqli_res);
}

// Generate Anti-CSRF token
generateSessionToken();

?>

首先使用了mysqli_real_escape_string()函数对sql注入进行防御;而且,每次我们发送登录请求时,都会在请求中加入一个user_token,并且登录一次,user_token更换一次。 爆破过程如下: ①将登录页面请求包发送到Intruder模块,按如下配置 img ②设置跟随重定向img ③爆破,我们把密码设置为参数一,user_token设置为参数二,就可以进行爆破了。

4、Impossible

<?php

if( isset( $_POST[ 'Login' ] ) && isset ($_POST['username']) && isset ($_POST['password']) ) { 
    // Check Anti-CSRF token
    checkToken( $_REQUEST[ 'user_token' ], $_SESSION[ 'session_token' ], 'index.php' );

    // Sanitise username input
    $user = $_POST[ 'username' ];
    $user = stripslashes( $user );
    $user = ((isset($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]) && is_object($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"])) ? mysqli_real_escape_string($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"],  $user ) : ((trigger_error("[MySQLConverterToo] Fix the mysql_escape_string() call! This code does not work.", E_USER_ERROR)) ? "" : ""));

    // Sanitise password input
    $pass = $_POST[ 'password' ];
    $pass = stripslashes( $pass );
    $pass = ((isset($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"]) && is_object($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"])) ? mysqli_real_escape_string($GLOBALS["___mysqli_ston"],  $pass ) : ((trigger_error("[MySQLConverterToo] Fix the mysql_escape_string() call! This code does not work.", E_USER_ERROR)) ? "" : ""));
    $pass = md5( $pass );

    // Default values
    $total_failed_login = 3;
    $lockout_time       = 15;
    $account_locked     = false;

    // Check the database (Check user information)
    $data = $db->prepare( 'SELECT failed_login, last_login FROM users WHERE user = (:user) LIMIT 1;' );
    $data->bindParam( ':user', $user, PDO::PARAM_STR );
    $data->execute();
    $row = $data->fetch();

    // Check to see if the user has been locked out.
    if( ( $data->rowCount() == 1 ) && ( $row[ 'failed_login' ] >= $total_failed_login ) )  { 
        // User locked out. Note, using this method would allow for user enumeration!
        //echo "<pre><br />This account has been locked due to too many incorrect logins.</pre>";

        // Calculate when the user would be allowed to login again
        $last_login = strtotime( $row[ 'last_login' ] );
        $timeout    = $last_login + ($lockout_time * 60);
        $timenow    = time();

        /* print "The last login was: " . date ("h:i:s", $last_login) . "<br />"; print "The timenow is: " . date ("h:i:s", $timenow) . "<br />"; print "The timeout is: " . date ("h:i:s", $timeout) . "<br />"; */

        // Check to see if enough time has passed, if it hasn't locked the account
        if( $timenow < $timeout ) { 
            $account_locked = true;
            // print "The account is locked<br />";
        }
    }

    // Check the database (if username matches the password)
    $data = $db->prepare( 'SELECT * FROM users WHERE user = (:user) AND password = (:password) LIMIT 1;' );
    $data->bindParam( ':user', $user, PDO::PARAM_STR);
    $data->bindParam( ':password', $pass, PDO::PARAM_STR );
    $data->execute();
    $row = $data->fetch();

    // If its a valid login...
    if( ( $data->rowCount() == 1 ) && ( $account_locked == false ) ) { 
        // Get users details
        $avatar       = $row[ 'avatar' ];
        $failed_login = $row[ 'failed_login' ];
        $last_login   = $row[ 'last_login' ];

        // Login successful
        echo "<p>Welcome to the password protected area <em>{ $user}</em></p>";
        echo "<img src=\"{ $avatar}\" />";

        // Had the account been locked out since last login?
        if( $failed_login >= $total_failed_login ) { 
            echo "<p><em>Warning</em>: Someone might of been brute forcing your account.</p>";
            echo "<p>Number of login attempts: <em>{ $failed_login}</em>.<br />Last login attempt was at: <em>${last_login}</em>.</p>";
        }

        // Reset bad login count
        $data = $db->prepare( 'UPDATE users SET failed_login = "0" WHERE user = (:user) LIMIT 1;' );
        $data->bindParam( ':user', $user, PDO::PARAM_STR );
        $data->execute();
    } else { 
        // Login failed
        sleep( rand( 2, 4 ) );

        // Give the user some feedback
        echo "<pre><br />Username and/or password incorrect.<br /><br/>Alternative, the account has been locked because of too many failed logins.<br />If this is the case, <em>please try again in { $lockout_time} minutes</em>.</pre>";

        // Update bad login count
        $data = $db->prepare( 'UPDATE users SET failed_login = (failed_login + 1) WHERE user = (:user) LIMIT 1;' );
        $data->bindParam( ':user', $user, PDO::PARAM_STR );
        $data->execute();
    }

    // Set the last login time
    $data = $db->prepare( 'UPDATE users SET last_login = now() WHERE user = (:user) LIMIT 1;' );
    $data->bindParam( ':user', $user, PDO::PARAM_STR );
    $data->execute();
}

// Generate Anti-CSRF token
generateSessionToken();

?>

Impossible级别的代码加入了可靠的防爆破机制,当检测到频繁的错误登录后,系统会将账户锁定,爆破也就无法继续; 同时采用了更为安全的PDO(PHP Data Object)机制防御sql注入,这是因为不能使用PDO扩展本身执行任何数据库操作,而sql注入的关键就是通过破坏sql语句结构执行恶意的sql命令。

关于验证码问题,可以先看另外一篇靶机练习的博客 验证码暴力破解 改天会专门写一篇关于验证码的文章。

本文为互联网自动采集或经作者授权后发布,本文观点不代表立场,若侵权下架请联系我们删帖处理!文章出自:https://blog.csdn.net/sycamorelg/article/details/111056220
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